Blackstone Edge

The Aiggin Stone

The Aiggin Stone

The Aiggin Stone

This upright stone is thought to be a medieval waymarker, sited on an old packhorse route, overlaying a Roman road crossing the Pennines. A rude latin cross is incised on the stone, with the letters I.T. Possibly used as a stopping point to say prayers for a safe journey over the moors (being a much more dangerous undertaking thatn it is today), or sometimes as a resting place for those carrying coffins, where prayers for the dead would be recited (1). It is also possibly a boundary marker, being so close to the Yorkshire/Lancashire boarder.

The stone once stood several feet tall but has been diminished by falling and being pushed over. It was found laying in the heather in 1930 and was set back up again in 1933. It has been suggested that the name is a corruption of the Latin word ‘Agger’, meaning “a pile, heap, mound, dike, mole, pier – in Roman antiquity, an earthwork or other artificial mound or rampart.” (2)

An alternative suggestion is, ““The name ‘Aiggin’ suggests a pronunciation resembling either ‘edge’ or ‘hedge’ and thus it might mean ‘Edge Stone’. Alternatively it could be derived from the French ‘aguille’, meaning a needle or sharp-pointing rock.” (3)

 

The weather worn boulder Robin Hood's Bed

The weather worn boulder Robin Hood’s Bed

Robin Hood’s Bed

At the highest point on these lonely, windswept moors, sits a weather worn boulder known as Robin Hood’s Bed. The top of the boulder is hollowed out in a large depression. Legend has it that Robin Hood once slept here, while his followers stood guard.

There is a possibility that the Robin Hood legend here could have displaced a much older legend, that the site was the resting place of an ancient leader. In old Welsh, the word bedd means ‘grave or tomb’ (4). The etymology of the nearby village of Walsden means ‘Valley of the Welsh’ (5). Anglo-Saxon settlers called the indigenous Britons, ‘Welsh’, meaning foreigner. So it is possible that the name derives from the old British site of an ancient tomb.

Another oddity is that when I reached here, after climbing from the car park near the M62, I saw a line of people dressed in what appeared to be white robes walking away on the footpath that leads to the car park near Blackstone Edge Reservoir!

 

Blackstone Edge

Blackstone Edge

Blackstone Edge Chartist Meeting

But waved the wind on Blackstone Height
A standard of the broad sunlight
And sung that morn with trumpet might
A sounding song of liberty!

It is hard to believe now that this high moorland outcrop played a part in the battle for our civil rights. Yet on Saturday 1st August 1846, 30,000 people from the surrounding mill towns and villages gathered here at a Chartist’s rally, to hear Manchester radical Ernest Jones speak.

The days of radical uprisings, the outlawing of trade unions, the hangings and deportations of the Luddites and the Peterloo Massacre in Manchester, were still within living memory. The Chartists were the first mass working class labour movement, calling for political reform in Britain, they would often hold their meetings in remote places to avoid the attentions of the mill owners and police. They took their name from the Peoples Charter, first published in May 1838 calling for, amongst other demands, universal suffrage.

“When the State calls for defenders, when it calls for money, no consideration of poverty or ignorance can be pleaded, in refusal or delay of the call. Required, as we are universally, to support and obey the laws, nature and reason entitle us to demand that in the making of the laws, the universal voice shall be implicitly listened to. We perform the duties of freemen; we must have the privileges of freemen. Therefore, we demand universal suffrage. The suffrage, to be exempt from the corruption of the wealthy and the violence of the powerful, must be secret.”

Between 1838 and 1851, five petitions were put to parliament. The second in 1842 containing over three million signatures. All were voted down by MPs (leading to the Yorkshire and Lancashire Plug Riots). Although Chartism itself failed to achieve it’s aims, it did seriously unnerve the political elites and opened to door to winning gradual political reform throughout the remainder of the nineteenth and into the twentieth century.

Though hunger stamped each forehead spare
And eyes were dim with factory glare
Loud swelled the nation’s battle prayer
Of – death to class monopoly!

 

(1)  Ray Spencer – The Northern Antiquarian http://megalithix.wordpress.com

(2)  Herbert Collins (1950) – The Northern Antiquarian http://megalithix.wordpress.com

(3)  James Maxium (1965) – The Northern Antiquarian http://megalithix.wordpress.com

(4)  Paul Bennett – The Northern Antiquarian http://megalithix.wordpress.com

(5)  Kai Roberts – The Northern Antiquarian http://megalithix.wordpress.com

Kinder Trespass, 80 Years On

Rock on the slopes of Kinder Scout, overlooking a moody William Clough.

Rock on the slopes of Kinder Scout, overlooking a moody William Clough.

For by Kinder, and by Bleaklow, and all through the Goyt we’ll go
We’ll ramble over mountain, moor and fen
And we’ll fight against the trespass laws for every rambler’s rights
And trespass over Kinder Scout again…

Trespass song based on a parody of ‘The Road to the Isles’.

The Right to Roam

Sunday 24th April 1932 is a date that resonates in the history of the Peak District. As this was the day when more than 400 ramblers took to the then private Kinder Scout, to challenge the landowner (the Duke of Devonshire) over access rights. As we approach the 80th anniversary of this watershed moment in the history of countryside access, it is a good point to assess what progress was made after the trespass and how we currently approach the subject. The 1932 Kinder Trespass has become an iconic event in British history. A demonstration that people power can really work and a small part of the over all movement for a fairer and more equal society. Benny Rothman, one of the trespass organisers who were imprisoned for their part, became the movement’s figurehead. He campaigned about access and environmental issues for the remainder of his life.

Successive enclosure acts throughout the 18th and 19th centuries had snatched swathes of what was once common land. Much of the moorland of the Peak District was privately owned and used for only a few days of the year for grouse shooting. A few footpaths allowed access to about one percent of the Peak District, access to the vast majority of moorland was forbidden. Rambling associations tended to be composed of the middle classes, with Dukes and Earls amongst their patrons. Climbers at Stanage Edge used to bribe gamekeepers to turn a blind eye to their activities with barrels of beer. By the 1920’s and 1930’s however, rambling was becoming a much more popular pastime amongst the working classes. It is thought that tens of thousands of ramblers would head for the Peak District every Sunday. Resentment began to build to the landowners who barred access and the slow lobbying of the official rambling associations. In 1927 a mass trespass took place at Winnat’s Pass, organised by the Sheffield Clarion Ramblers.

The initial spark for the 1932 trespass happened at the British Worker’s Sports Federation’s (composed largely of members and supporters of the British Communist Party) Easter camp that year, held at Rowarth, a few miles west of Kinder Scout. A small group headed for an organised ramble over Bleaklow. Benny Rothman recounted:

“The small band was stopped at Yellow Slacks by a group of gamekeepers. They were abused, threatened and turned back. To add to the humiliation of the Manchester ramblers, a number of those present were from the London BWSF on a visit to the Peak District, and they were astounded by the incident. There were not enough ramblers to force their way through, so, crestfallen, they had to return to camp.”

A Singsong and a Scrap

Flyers distributed around Manchester called for attendance at a rally in Hayfield Recreation Ground on 24th April. This was changed to Bowden Bridge Quarry at the last minute to avoid the police and the Parish Council, who had posted copies of local bylaws forbidding meetings there and supplied the Parish Council Clerk to read them if anyone attempted to make speeches. About 400 ramblers met at the quarry, and after short speech by Benny Rothman, who stepped in when the scheduled speaker decided to pull out, set off along the legal footpath towards William Clough at 2.00pm.

At Nab Brow, they caught first sight of the keepers dotted along the slope beneath Sandy Heys. A whistle was sounded for the troupe to stop. On a second whistle they turned right to face Kinder Scout. When the third whistle sounded, they began to scramble up the steep slope towards the keepers. Although a few minor scuffles ensued and in some cases, the gamekeeper’s sticks were taken and turned against them, there was only one injury (a gamekeeper knocked unconscious suffered a twisted ankle). In the majority of cases, the protesters just walked through the line of keepers, where they reformed and headed for the plateau. Once at the top, they were greeted by a smaller group from Sheffield (possibly from the Clarion Ramblers, another Socialist inspired walking organisation), who had made their way up from Edale. This account was later challenged by one of the gamekeepers, who claimed that no other party had been present that day.

They then pressed on to Ashop Head, where a short rally was held to congratulate the participants on a successful trespass. It was suspected that some may be fined upon their return and a hat was passed around for donations. The party then began to make their way back to Hayfield, retracing their steps along the path down William Clough. They were met by the police at the Stockport Corporation Water Works and an attempt was made to grab someone from the crowd but was chased off by the ramblers. At the beginnings of Hayfield village, they were met by an inspector in a police car, who suggested that they form a column behind him to lead them into the village. They did this and sang as they marched into Hayfield.

It was of course a trap, as when they reached the centre of the village they were stopped by police who began to search amongst them, accompanied by gamekeepers. Six arrests were made (five on the return to Hayfield and another later that afternoon). Benny Rothman was one of those arrested. They were first of all detained at Hayfield, then taken to New Mills, due to the crowd gathered outside calling for their release and charged with unlawful assembly and breach of the peace (notably not trespass, which was a civil offence), as the Duke of Devonshire insisted on pressing ahead with charges.

All pleaded not guilty, so Benny Rothman, Tona Gillett, Harry Mendel, Jud Clyde, John Anderson and Dave Nesbitt were committed for trial at Derby Assizes. It was said that the jury was composed of a cross section of the Derbyshire country establishment, including two brigadier generals, three colonels, two majors and two aldermen. Despite an impassioned speech by Benny Rothman, they were handed jail terms of between two to six months each.

A summer sunset at Kinder Scout, looking towards Ashop Head.

A summer sunset at Kinder Scout, looking towards Ashop Head.

Steps in the Right Direction

The sentences, seen as draconian even then, caused outrage and probably did more to promote the cause than the trespass itself. The trespass also caused division amongst rambler associations, who had been petitioning for an Access to Mountains Bill in Parliament since 1884 and held rallies at Winnat’s Pass since the mid 1920s. They were of the opinion that access could be negotiated and were very different to the young trespassers who saw access as a matter of right. A few weeks after the trespass, 10,000 ramblers assembled at a rally at Winnat’s Pass. It was clear that momentum was beginning to build.

The years following the trespass would see slow steps towards access. Throughout the 1930s, moves were made towards the creation of national parks, an idea first raised by Ramsay MacDonald in 1929 and the subject of the Addison Report in 1931, although it would be another 19 years before the establishment of the Peak District National Park. The Addison Report was kicked into the long grass during the depression of the early 1930s but resurrected at a conference in 1935. The Standing Committee for National Parks was formed in 1936 and published ‘The Case for National Parks in Great Britain’ in 1938.

In 1939, the Access to Mountains Act finally passed through parliament as a Private Member’s Bill, introduced by Arthur Creech Jones (Labour MP for Shipley) but in such a mutilated form that it was described as a landowner’s charter and for the first time, made trespass a criminal offence in certain circumstances. It was bitterly opposed by the newly formed Rambler’s Association, who sought to repeal the long fought for bill.

Throughout the 1940s, the momentum towards the establishment of national parks continued, including the publication of the 1947 Hobhouse Report, suggesting 12 potential national parks. This resulted in Clement Atlee’s visionary post-war Labour Government passing the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. The Countryside Commission and the Nature Conservancy Council were formed under the new act. Both merged in 2006 to form Natural England. On 17th April 1951, the Peak District National Park became the first of its kind in Britain. In 1955 the first access agreement for Kinder Scout was signed and in 1962, access to Stanage Edge was agreed.

Alongside these gradual steps towards the creation of the national parks, a special mention must be given to Tom Stephenson, who in 1935 set into motion the idea of the ‘Jubilee Trail’. Many long years of negotiation followed and his dream was eventually realised when in 1965, the Pennine Way opened, stretching from Edale to Scotland.

The 1968 Countryside Act placed a duty on every minister, government department and public body to have, “due regard for conserving the natural beauty and amenity of the countryside.” In 1970, the Peak District National Park purchased the North Lees Estate, including Stanage Edge. In 1982, the National Trust bought Kinder Scout and declared it open for access in perpetuity.

When the Countryside Rights of Way Act was passed in 2000, it signified the final realisation of over a century of struggle for the Right to Roam. At the 70th anniversary celebration of the trespass on Kinder in 2002, Andrew, the 11th Duke of Devonshire, publicly apologised for his grandfather’s actions:

“I am aware that I represent the villain of the piece this afternoon. But over the last 70 years times have changed and it gives me enormous pleasure to welcome walkers to my estate today. The trespass was a great shaming event on my family and the sentences handed down were appalling. But out of great evil can come great good. The trespass was the first event in the whole movement of access to the countryside and the creation of our national parks.” 

It is a source of great happiness that Benny Rothman lived to see this act passed. He lived to celebrate his 90th birthday, passing away in January 2002, just a few weeks before the 70th anniversary of the trespass.

The Long Road Ahead

Since it’s creation, the Peak District National Park Authority has worked to improve access, biodiversity, learning, safety, management and planning. However, the current government’s assault on public funding has also effected the PDNPA, whose budgets have been slashed. The effect of this is that much of the small percentage of the Peak District that the authority actually owns, is now up for sale or lease.

Recently the PDNPA agreed a lease partnership for the Eastern Moors with the National Trust and the RSPB (who also lease Dovestones Reservoir and it’s surrounding moorland from United Utilities). The authority has also found it necessary to offer up the Roaches and Stanage Edge, in the hope of attracting similar lease deals. Of course, it is a condition that any partners will maintain the natural habitats and access that goes with these iconic Peak District locations.

Although there seems to be no immediate threat to access at these locations, or any current danger of the break up of the PDNPA, it is always worrying when those things that were previously held in public ownership are passed on to private control and one cannot help but fear that this could just be the thin end of the wedge. Already the current Tory led government have floated the idea of selling off the nation’s forests, to be met with a backlash so furious (thanks in part to the petitioning website 38degrees.org.uk) that they immediately backed down. Had this policy not been met with such overwhelming opposition, it is almost certain that the national parks would have been next.

It is concerning that other legislation could have a negative effect upon our green spaces, such as the recent Localism Act that places our countryside in real danger. It places profit and national economic policy before conservation. It dictates that the default position for any planning application is to be “yes”, planning authorities are obliged to “meet local development needs” and deliver a 20% increase in land available for new build housing. The act is the result of intense lobbying by the construction industry. In towns and cities, there could well be enough brown belt land to meet these needs (although Kirklees Council have just ear-marked a considerable amount of green belt for development), the countryside however, without reserves of ex-industrial brown field sites, will probably have little choice but to make green belt available to developers.

Although many victories have been won over the long course of the struggle for access, it would be easy for us to become complacent in thinking that as access to some of the country’s best natural spaces are currently enshrined in law, that these rights are secure. This regressive government’s mood is one of rolling back public funding under the guise of austerity and it would come as no great surprise that, if access laws were judged to be an obstacle to private profit, there is every possibility that they could be repealed. As with our hard won rights in other areas of society, we owe it to our forebears to keep ourselves informed and ensure that their centuries of struggle for social progress are not undone. That we avoid sleepwalking into a future, where our rights to the land that we all cherish are taken away from under our feet once again.

The next time that you walk on the moorlands of the Peak District, or further afield, remember that raggle taggle band of ramblers, who came to Kinder Scout from the mills and factories of Manchester and Sheffield 80 years ago, and thank them and those that followed for the fact that you can now walk freely where you choose in these high places of beauty. And if ever it is suspected that any government minister, landowner or company executive is attempting to take those rights away from you, just ask yourself, what would Benny do?

This article originally appeared on Peak District On-line.

Over looking the trespass site at William Clough towards Sandy Heys (in cloud).

Over looking the trespass site at William Clough towards Sandy Heys (in cloud).